The Whiskyphiles

Whiskyphile, noun [C] specialized / ˈwɪs.ki.faɪl / a disciplined devotion to whisky, first known use 2013.

Whisktionary & Beersaurus

Whisktionary

/ˈwɪs.k.shəˌner-ē/

Beersaurus

/bîr-sôr′əs/

A reference book of beer & whisky


ABV [Alcohol By Volume] – The alcoholic strength as measured by the relative volume of alcohol present.


Acetone – An organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO. It is a colourless, volatile, flammable liquid, and is the simplest ketone. Familiar household uses of acetone are as the active ingredient in nail polish remover and as paint thinner.


Age Statement – The minimum age, normally in full years, of any whisky present within a bottle


Ale – Ales are beers fermented with top fermenting yeast. Ales typically are fermented at warmer temperatures than lagers, and are often served warmer. The term ale is sometimes incorrectly associated with alcoholic strength


Angel’s Share – The loss in volume due to evaporation of whisky from a cask as it matures [often calculated as an average of 5% volume in the first year then 2% of the remaining volume per year thereafter]. Actual loss will vary from cask to cask due to their individual properties.


ASB [American Standard Barrel] – ASB’s are oak containers of 200 litre capacity, made from charred, virgin oak wood they are used in the maturation of bourbon and subsequently employed for the maturation of Scotch whisky.


Astringency – A characteristic taste mostly caused by tannins, oxidized (phenols), and various aldehydes (in stale beer). Astringency can cause the mouth to pucker and is often perceived as dryness.


Barley – A cereal grain derived from the annual grass Hordeum vulgare. Barley is used as a base malt in the production of beer and certain distilled spirits, as well as a food supply for humans and animals.


Blend – A mixture of whiskies from different distilleries. If all components are Malt whisky then a Blended Malt is produced, a mixture of Malt and Grain whiskies produces a Blended Whisky, if produced in Scotland then it is known as Blended Scotch.


Blending – The process of mixing whisky from more than one distillery. Blending is an art form executed by expert blenders, mostly done by nosing of the component whiskies and having an wealth of  knowledge and understanding of how the component parts will behave and be perceived when mixed together.


Bonded – Applying to warehouses used to store whisky. A Bond or Bonded Warehouse is a secured building in which dutiable goods may be stored or manipulated without payment of duty.


Bourbon – An American whisky produced using a minimum of 51% or more corn, distilled to no more than 80% ABV, aged in new, charred oak barrels at no more than 62.5% ABV and bottled at no less than 40% ABV.


Butt – A large oak container of 500 litre capacity, commonly used for the maturation and storage of sherry and subsequently employed for the maturation of whisky


Cask – An oak container used for the storage of whisky, though most other names (barrel, hogshead, butt, etc.) denote containers of a specific size, all are considered a cask once filled with whisky.


Cask Filling Strength – The alcoholic strength at which spirit is interred into the cask. Commonly spirit is diluted from still strength down to 62.5% or 63% ABV before filling into the cask. Rarely Still Strength spirit is used undiluted and less commonly Marrying Strength casks are filled at 68% ABV.


Cask Strength – The alcoholic strength of whisky while it is maturing within the cask. Bottling the whisky without the common dilution to a standard ABV (e.g. 40%, 43% or 46%) would result in a cask strength (or Barrel Proof) bottling.


Charger – A closed vessel used for charging (filling) copper pot stills during batch distillation, commonly a Wash Charger and Low Wines & Feints Charger are employed during double distillation


Column or Continuous Still – A large industrial apparatus used for the continuous distillation of grain whisky. Continuous stills consist typically of two columns, named the Analyzer and Rectifier. Operating like a long tube of pot stills, the alcohol/water mixture is purified by introduction of steam and passing through several porous plates. The resultant alcoholic vapour extracted can be as concentrated as 96% ABV.


Condenser – Attached to the Lyne arm, the condenser functions to return the vapour to its liquid phase. This is achieved by running cold water over the condenser tube. Traditional ‘worm tub’ condensers consist of a spiral tube immersed in a tub of cold running water. More modern tube-in-tube condensers (either horizontal or more commonly vertical) consist of a wide bore tube through which the vapour travels whilst cold water is run in a counter-current through numerous smaller tubes within it.


Cut – The middle part of the distillation run between the Foreshots and Feints, also known as the Heart of the run. This contains the most desirable alcohols and runs from 80% down to 60% ABV during the run, giving an average ~ 70% ABV.


Distill or Distillation – Purifying a liquid by heating it so that it vaporizes, then cooling and condensing the vapour and collecting the resulting liquid. The resultant liquid has been Distilled.


Distillery – A place where spirits are manufactured by the process of distillation.


Double-Distilled – Having undergone a process of two separate and sequential distillation events.


Draff – The remains of the milled grain after the mashing process, mostly husks and coarse grits. This material is low in sugar but high in protein and traditionally was sold to local farmers as cattle feed. Most nowadays is collected and used in the manufacture of processed/pelleted animal feed.


Dunnage – A traditional type of warehouse for the storage of whisky, constructed of thick stone or brick with low walls, slate roof and and earthen floor. Casks are usually stored stacked no more then three-high and are hand-moved.


Feints – Towards the end of a batch distillation run in a copper pot still, the feints are too low in alcohol as to be usable. Feints are collected and re-distilled with the next batch.


Finish – The after-effect of the whisky following tasting as experienced by the senses.


Finishing – A specific maturation technique where whisky is matured in one cask type and then transferred to a second, different cask type to obtain the properties from the ‘finishing’ cask (commonly ex-bourbon followed by ex-sherry, but any combination is possible).


Foreshots – The initial distillate off of the still during the distillation run, containing the most volatile and undesirable alcohols (e.g. Methanol), these are normally returned and mixed with the feints for further distillation.


Grain – Whisky produced from a continuous still can be made from any type or combination of cereal grains including barley, wheat, maize (corn) and rye and hence is known as grain whisky.


Grist – Milled grain in preparation for the making of beer or whisky. Grist is composed of the husks and coarse grits, fine grits and flour. The majority of sugars released are present within the flour. The presence of the other components however helps with the mashing process by allowing percolation of the water through the grist while the sugars are dissolving.


Hogshead – An oak container of 250 litre capacity, hogsheads are often constructed by rebuilding ASB and incorporating extra staves producing a more curved barrel shape.


IB [Independent bottling] – Denoting a bottle of whisky that has been bottled by a third party or Independent Bottler and not the originator of the whisky.


Kiln – A large furnace or oven used for drying germinated (malted) barley grains. Traditionally peat-fired giving the resulting malt and whisky a peaty, smoky flavour. Traditional kilns have a wirecloth floor and a distinctive pagoda roof chimney.


Low Wines – Following the first pot still distillation run, the wash is commonly concentrated from 8% ABV to a distillate from the Wash Still of 20% ABV termed Low Wines. The Low Wines are then charged into the Spirit Still for a subsequent distillation to 60-70% ABV.


Lyne Arm – The tubular structure attached to the top of the neck of the pot still, through which the vapour is carried to the condenser. Both the size, shape and angle of the Lyne arm will affect how the vapour escapes and subsequently the nature of the new make spirit produced.


Malt – Or Malted Barley, germinated barley cereal grains. Using water and heat, dormant cereal barley grain is tricked into germinating, a biological process during which Maltese enzymes are released and breakdown of the cereal starch stores into maltose occurs. Malting is halted before the sugar is utilised by heating and drying in a kiln. Whisky produced from 100% malted barley is also known as malt whisky.


Marriage – Or Marrying, the process of mixing whisky from different casks all produced by one distillery (i.e. As in Single Malt or Single Grain whisky)


Mashtun – A large tank or vessel in which the milled malted barley (or grist) is washed with typically three volumes of water at increasing temperatures in order to extract the dissolvable sugars released by the malting and milling processes. Normally the first and second water are saturated with enough sugar to become Wort and be used for fermentation in the Washback. The final and hottest wash is usually too weak in sugar and so is reused as the first wash for the next batch.


New Make – Or New Make Spirit, the name given to the spirit distillate directly as it come off the still.


Nose – The aroma of whisky as detected and experienced by the sense of smell during Nosing.


OB [Official Bottling] – Denoting a bottling of whisky that originates from the original producer (as opposed to IB)


Outturn – A measure of the amount of whisky extracted from a matured cask, usually in standard 70cl bottles at cask strength.


Palate – The flavour and structure of the whisky as experienced by the sense of taste (and smell) during tasting.


Pot Ale – The residue resulting from the distillation of wash in the copper pot still, commonly also sold as animal feed. Pot Ale requires to be cleared out of the still and the still cleaned after each batch distillation.


Pot Still – A traditional copper pot still is a large copper kettle or alembic in which alcohol/water mixtures are boiled. As the alcohol has a lower boiling point than water, the early vapours are enriched in alcohol and thus fractional distillation is achieved. Most whisky is either double or triple distilled, undergoing this process either two or three times and reaching a higher alcoholic purity with each distillation. The size and shape of the still will affect how the vapours rise and purify, hence affecting the final nature and flavour of the new make spirit produced.


Receiver – A large closed vessel used for the receiving of distillates from the stills, typically a Low Wines and Feints Receiver and Intermediate Spirits Receiver are employed during double or triple pot still distillations


Scotch – Whisky made, matured for a minimum of 3 years and bottled in Scotland.


Sherry – A fortified wine made from white grapes in the region around Jerez de la Frontera in Andalusia, Spain.


Single – Produced by or belonging to only one distillery.


Spent Lees – The residue resulting from distillation of Low Wines & Feints in the spirit still. Spent Lees require treatment before returning to waste or water courses.


Spirit – Or spirit alcohol, between new make but before it can legally be called whisky (i.e. After 3 years maturation for Scotch) the distillate is termed spirit or spirit drink (when consumed).


Spirit Safe – A large, glass-walled and secured container which allows the distiller to manage and analyse the spirit coming out of copper pot stills without coming into contact with it. Traditionally made of brass and visibly barred and padlocked with keys held by both the Distillery Manager and the Customs and Excise Officer.


Spirit Still – Or Low Wines & Feints Still the second, often smaller copper pot still used in batch distillation.


Still – A device used for the distillation and purification of alcohol from alcohol/water mixtures.


Triple-Distilled – Having undergone a process of three separate and sequential distillation events.


Underback – A small open-topped vessel through which the wort is sparging or leaving the mashtun. This allows the visual inspection of the clarity of the wort as well as control its flow.


Vintage – Denoting a single specific year in which a cask or batch of casks of whisky were distilled and laid down for maturation. A bottling of such casks can claim that year as its Vintage (similar to wine).


Virgin Oak – An oak cask utilised to mature whisky that has had no previous occupants.


Warehouse – A warehouse is used for the storage and maturation of casks of whisky.


Wash – The liquid produced during the fermentation step which is then distilled.


Wash Still – In batch distillation the wash is first distilled in a larger copper pot still termed the Wash Still, producing the Low Wines


Washback – A large vessel in which wort and yeast are mixed and fermented to produce an alcoholic beer, typically of around 8% ABV and termed wash, for further distillation. Washbacks typically hold tens of thousands of litres and traditionally were constructed from Scots Larch or Oregon Pine, more modern examples are made from Corten or Stainless Steel.


Whisky or Whiskey – A distilled alcoholic beverage made from fermented mashed grain or grains, aged in a wooden cask typically made of oak.


Wort – The sugary liquid extracted during the mashing process in the production of beer or whisky. The sugar is fermented by yeast to produce alcohol.


Worts Cooler – A heat-exchange device used to cool the Wort, typically from 60-70 degrees Celsius as it leaves the Mashtun to a more yeast-friendly temperature below 40 degrees so as not to kill the yeast added for fermentation. Efficient worts coolers can be used to transfer heat from the Wort back into future waters for the Mashtun.

 

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